Aristotle chose to open his Categories with a definition of equivocal. The example he gave was a real man and a figure in a picture. He said they can both lay claim to the name 'animal'. The real man, I can understand. A physical being can be called an animal. But what of a drawing … Continue reading Equivocal
Language is a human intentional activity, not possessed by other animals. Another distinction employed in language is use and mention, so there is a …J.L. Austin and aspects of speech act theory… Ordinary language philosophy needs to be taken seriously. A “philosophy” for animals would entail concepts and referents but not language, and therefore no … Continue reading J.L. Austin and aspects of speech act theory…
It is interesting to me that the new year could start in any season of the year but most start at the end of winter or the beginning of spring (half full or half empty). Those cultures or countries that do not seem to be either 1) near the equator, 2) in the Southern Hemisphere … Continue reading New Year
Perceiving and interacting are different things. Things may interact without being perceived. Things may not interact with one being perceived. Things may interact with each other being perceived. Things may not interact even though they are perceived. Perception and interaction are separate issues.
Nothing changes about an object whether it is observed (perceived) or not. Similarly, an object perceived by, none, one or many changes nothing about the object. It’s existence seems to be given or guaranteed. Berkeley believed this is possible because God perceives the entire universe. I appeal to no such “thing” but rather things-space/time is … Continue reading An observation about objects and their being observed
Good summary. So, is there truth outside of language? Or are what is true or false within the realm of language only? Introduction The philosophy of language focuses on how language represents the world, and involves issues of meaning, intentionality, reference, and …A very brief overview, with a few distinctions, on the philosophy of language…
Ontology is the inquiry into what exists. The ontological argument is the affirmation in philosophy of the existence of God. The affirmation of the existence of God is stated and can only be stated without proof and is taken to be a priori, that is, given. Given that God is beyond our common senses, we … Continue reading Ontology and ontological argument
In analysing meaning Ogden and Richards created a three part model of symbol (language), reference (concepts) and referent (objects). This is a useful way of looking at things. One can think of there being an object, a person, for example, and distinguish the person (object) from the thought of the person (concept) and the term … Continue reading Entities
There is a place for this approach. The many things we consider objects in the philosophical sense can be understood as properties of things. While observed in the philosophically they no longer create problems that objectificiation (philosophical reification) produces.
When one see that all systems are systems of mutually defining entities then one can see all entities rely upon all other entities for its definition, that is, all thing are defined by what it is not. By being so we can see the more things that something is not the more definite its definition … Continue reading No inherent meaning and meaningfulness
There are three elements that make up meaning - the referent ("things"), the reference (signified, concept or thought) and symbol (signifier). Together they work as a system of mutually defining entities. However, each element is in-itself a system of mutually defining entities as well, and must be studied and understood as such. They are in … Continue reading Three elements of meaning
Saussure, in conceiving what language is, said that (as summarised by David Crystal) it is a system of mutually defining entities. Language is but one such system. When the entirety of the reality is taken to be closed, it is system as well. But it is a completely different story whether we label every single … Continue reading Systems of mutually defining entities
There are things or physical objects. They can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted and touched. That is, these things can be known by the five senses. … …Concept and word form are distinct from the physical objects The concepts (representation) motivated by a physical object in two people (that is, two people seeing the same … Continue reading Concepts are not the things they represent
There are things or physical objects. They can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted and touched. That is, these things can be known by the five senses. …Objects and communicable meaning All that is necessary to know is that the concept (representation) and word form (signifier) are distinct the very object that motivates them. And by … Continue reading Concept and word form are distinct from the physical objects
There are things or physical objects. They can be seen, heard, smelled, tasted and touched. That is, these things can be known by the five senses. The smallest and simplest object is the atom and not the sub-atomic particle. Sub-atomic particles are like letters of a language. While the the word 'cat' have a meaning … Continue reading Objects and communicable meaning